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Glossary

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Global state

Ivan Irakoze
A set of data that is mutable through node operations on a ledger. For example, with every transaction of an asset the database entry regarding who owns the asset changes.
1 up votes and 0 down votes. Total score

Goguen

olga.hryniuk@iohk.io
The third phase of Cardano development that brought smart contract support.
0 up votes and 0 down votes. Total score

Governance

olga.hryniuk@iohk.io
There is no single decision-maker controlling Cardano's growth and development. Instead, decentralized processes empower ada holders to make suggestions and collaborate on decisions. All ada holders can suggest a change through the Cardano improvement proposal (CIP) system, or participate in Project Catalyst to vote on what changes should be made.
1 up votes and 0 down votes. Total score

Hard fork

olga.hryniuk@iohk.io
An irreversible change to a blockchain protocol. Cardano uses a hard fork combinator to ensure smooth upgrades. Unlike earlier blockchains, Cardano hard forks save the chain history and do not cause disruption for users.
1 up votes and 0 down votes. Total score

Hardware wallet

olga.hryniuk@iohk.io
A device that stores cryptocurrencies offline and can be connected to a computer to access the funds. Hardware wallets are secure and beneficial in terms of offline security and convenience as they can be carried around and used when needed.
0 up votes and 0 down votes. Total score

Haskell

olga.hryniuk@iohk.io
A functional programming language with a focus on producing secure code.  Haskell is well suited to Cardano's high-assurance code, and the need for greater formal verification in the blockchain. Core parts of Cardano are written in Haskell and extensive testing processes ensure Plutus Core smart contracts work properly.
1 up votes and 0 down votes. Total score

Hot wallet

olga.hryniuk@iohk.io
A cryptocurrency wallet that can be accessed online to store currencies and make transactions. A hot wallet stores a collection of private keys and needs to be connected to the internet to process cryptocurrency operations.
0 up votes and 0 down votes. Total score

Hydra

olga.hryniuk@iohk.io
A family of protocols that overlay the layer 1 Cardano blockchain to process transactions off the main chain. Hydra uses the main ledger as the secure settlement layer, boosts throughput, minimizes the delay in starting to process transactions, incurs low to no costs, and greatly reduces storage requirements.
1 up votes and 0 down votes. Total score

Hydra Head

olga.hryniuk@iohk.io
The first of several Hydra protocols, and the basis of improving Cardano's scalability. Each Hydra Head works as an off-chain mini ledger, similar but faster than the main on-chain ledger, shared between small groups of participants. Many complex protocols can be added as layers on top of Cardano.
1 up votes and 0 down votes. Total score

IOG

olga.hryniuk@iohk.io
Input Output Global. The new name for IOHK, the company that developed the Cardano blockchain. IOG was registered in the US state of Wyoming in 2018, along with an office in Singapore.
2 up votes and 0 down votes. Total score

IOHK

olga.hryniuk@iohk.io
Input Output Hong Kong was founded in 2015 by Charles Hoskinson and Jeremy Wood to create Cardano. The company became Input Output Global in 2018.
0 up votes and 0 down votes. Total score

ISPO: initial stake pool offering

olga.hryniuk@iohk.io
A way to raise funds for DApps or projects on Cardano. A project offers its users tokens usable within its DApp in exchange for these users delegating their stake to the project’s pool. This increases the pool’s margin and helps it gain more rewards. Users receive staking rewards and benefit by getting utility tokens. There is no risk of losing funds because...
0 up votes and 0 down votes. Total score

Incentive

olga.hryniuk@iohk.io
A way to encourage participants in the system to engage in the network by rewarding them with a return that is proportional to their efforts. Incentives aim to ensure equality and fairness in a distributed network of participants by encouraging consistent, active, and strong participation. Cardano's incentives model uses game theory to calculate the incentiv...
0 up votes and 0 down votes. Total score

Interoperability

olga.hryniuk@iohk.io
Aims to enable interconnection between blockchains. Cross-chain transfers and the ‘internet of blockchains’ will grant enhanced user experience and functionality. Sidechains and the AGIX ERC20 converter support Cardano's interoperability.
0 up votes and 0 down votes. Total score

Jormungandr

Ivan Irakoze
A Rust-coded node implementation with the goal of supporting Ouroboros-based consensus protocols.
0 up votes and 0 down votes. Total score

KEVM

olga.hryniuk@iohk.io
K Ethereum Virtual Machine. It allows developers to experiment with any smart contract that can be run on the EVM, and offers improved security and performance.
0 up votes and 0 down votes. Total score

Key pair

olga.hryniuk@iohk.io
A set of two keys: public verification key and private signing key. These keys are used to process and approve transactions within the blockchain.The public key is the address used as a sending or receiving address in a transaction. The private key is the secret that controls access to assets. Anyone can send assets to a public key address It is quick and ...
1 up votes and 0 down votes. Total score

Layer 1

olga.hryniuk@iohk.io
The main blockchain ledger that operates on the underlying consensus protocol. This layer includes protocol parameters that control capabilities such as scalability and throughput.
0 up votes and 0 down votes. Total score

Layer 2

olga.hryniuk@iohk.io
An additional, off-chain protocol that works on top of the layer 1 blockchain. Parties can securely transfer funds from the blockchain into an off-chain protocol, settle transactions in this protocol independently of the underlying chain, and safely transfer funds back to the underlying chain as needed. Layer 2 protocols improve overall throughput and scalab...
0 up votes and 0 down votes. Total score

Ledger

olga.hryniuk@iohk.io
A database of blockchain records. On Cardano, more than 3,000 stake pools distributed worldwide operate and maintain this ledger.
0 up votes and 0 down votes. Total score