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Staking and rewards in proof of stake


Staking and rewards in Cardano

Cardano's staking and rewards system supports and incentivizes the blockchain's decentralization and is a fundamental component of the blockchain's operations. By delegating the stake that comes with their ada, Cardano users become active participants in the network's sustainability – with no costs and no ‘locking up’.

This post describes Cardano’s stake delegation process to summarize and demystify the technical information from public sources. The intention is to provide a convenient summary of what’s publicly available, with some references for readers to do their own research.

Staking on Cardano

Ada holders can delegate their ada to stake pools run by stake pool operators (SPOs). There are thousands of stake pools in operation.

Five years of experience and millions of wallet addresses have demonstrated the security and decentralization of Cardano’s Ouroboros proof-of-stake consensus at scale and volume.

Anyone who holds some ada can run a stake pool on a computer that is dedicated to the task. Running a stake pool does require some technical knowledge. This page from gives more details.

An easier and more popular option for an ada holder is to delegate to a stake pool. This description of the process is from the viewpoint of a delegator:

  • A wallet has a stake address (which collates stake) and a reward address (which accumulates rewards)

  • A snapshot is taken of the sum of the ada held by these addresses at the start of each epoch (which lasts five days) – this forms the staking power for the wallet in the next epoch

  • There is no minimum or maximum amount of stake

  • When an ada holder delegates stake to a pool, they increase the probability of that pool producing a block

  • If a stake pool mints blocks in an epoch, rewards are distributed to both the ada delegator and the stake pool according to the pool’s fee structure

  • Rewards are calculated during the epoch after the blocks are produced and then paid to rewards addresses at the start of the following epoch

  • Cardano promotes decentralization by limiting the effective size of a stake pool with the k parameter

  • Ada in a rewards address is automatically re-staked and can be withdrawn for spending when desired

  • The delegation process is baked into the protocol, and rewards are distributed automatically

  • There is no queue for withdrawals; each withdrawal is processed independently at the usual speed of transactions on the blockchain.

Figure 1 shows the relevant activities in a single thread of staking. Every epoch starts a new thread, so once the system stabilizes, all these activities happen concurrently in every epoch.

Figure 1. The sequence of staking in Cardano

The main implications of this system are:

  • Delegated stake earns rewards that compound at five-day intervals

  • There is no locking period or penalty for early withdrawal of ada after the snapshot has been taken

  • Once ada are staked, rewards start in fifteen days and then accrue every five days

  • The balance at the next epoch boundary is used for staking in the following thread

  • The wallet’s balance during an epoch does not affect rewards

  • Ada holders can distribute their stake across several pools

  • Security risk is minimized because the staked ada never leaves the staking wallet, and there’s no need to disclose any keys

  • There is no cost to delegators because the protocol rewards the pool operator directly.


Staking is a necessary feature of every proof-of-stake chain, but every chain has its own rules. Cardano’s rules are among the best in the industry, and they operate without needing any intervention from ada holders. By doing your own research, you will discover that competing blockchains do not measure up to Cardano’s standards.

Nothing in this article is intended to be professional advice, including without limitation, financial, investment, legal, or tax advice. Input Output Global is not responsible for your use of or reliance on any information in this article.










●     ウォレットはステークアドレス(ステークを照合)と報酬アドレス(報酬を蓄積)を持つ

●     各エポック(5日間続く)の開始時にこれらのアドレスが保持するADA総量のスナップショットが取得される(これにより、次のエポックにおけるウォレットのステーキングパワーが形成される)

●     ステークの最小量、最大量は設定されていない

●     ADA保有者がステークをプールに委任した場合、そのプールがブロックを生成する可能性は高まる

●     ステークプールがエポック中にブロックを生成すると、報酬は、そのプールの手数料設定に従って、ADAのデリゲーターとステークプールの両者に分配される

●     報酬はブロックが生成された次のエポック中に計算され、その次のエポックの開始時に報酬アドレスに支払われる

●     Cardanoはkパラメーターでステークプールの有効サイズを制限することにより、分散化を促進

●     報酬アドレスのADAは自動的に再ステーキングされ、必要に応じて引き出して使用することも可能

●     委任プロセスはプロトコルに組み込まれ、報酬は自動的に分配される

●     引き出しに待ち行列なし:各引き出しは個別に、ブロックチェーンの通常のトランザクションスピードで処理される




●     委任されたステークは5日間隔で合計された報酬を獲得

●     スナップショット取得後にADAを早期に引き出すことに対するロック期間もペナルティもなし

●     ADAがステーキングされると、報酬は15日で始まり、その後5日ごとに積み立てられる

●     次のエポック境界における残高は次のスレッドでのステーキングに使用される

●     エポック中のウォレット残高は報酬に影響しない

●     ADA保有者はステークを複数のプールに分散させられる

●     ステーキングはステーキング元のウォレットからADAを動かさずに実行されるため、鍵を開示する必要なく、セキュリティリスクが最小限に抑えられる

●     プールオペレーターはプロトコルから直接報酬を得るため、デリゲーターにコストはかからない



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