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Peer-to-peer (P2P)

Cardano nodes connect to each other directly, without relying on any intermediary. Direct communication means the network is faster and more efficient. Also, because no single point of potential failure exists, the network is more resilient. P2P also simplifies the process of running a relay node (one of the nodes run by stake pool operators, which does not produce blocks) or a block-producing node to validate transactions on the network faster.