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Cardano's core elements are based on academic research led by the Blockchain Technology Laboratory at the University of Edinburgh. Once an idea has been proven and tested mathematically by computer scientists, it is implemented as code by software engineers, with the key parts written in Haskell. Changes to the blockchain are then verified on a testnet before being released. IOG’s research teams have published more than 100 papers, most of which have been peer-reviewed at academic conferences. According to Google Scholar, the original Ouroboros paper has been cited more than 1,200 times. There are more than 30 IOG staff members with a Scholar profile and they have been cited about 70,000 times in total.